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Lexical and Phonetic Variation in English Dialects

Updated: Apr 14, 2023

This blog is based on the "Pop or Soda" project on LanguageARC. To participate, click here.

Pronunciation and Phonetic Differences Across English Speaking Regions

Different English speaking regions have their own unique lexical and phonetic characteristics. The Pop or Soda project on LanguageARC aims to elicit a corpus that represents the diversity of regional vocabulary, mainly focusing on English spoken in the United States.

The Atlas of North American English was created to study pronunciation or phonetic differences of dialects of English in North America. Linguists Labov, Ash, and Boberg made several observations including defining different dialect regions in North America and noting their most distinctive pronunciation aspects. The data was collected through informal phone interviews. Below are some of the many observations made about phonetic differences in the various regions of North America (Canada and the United States).

The North, or upper Midwest and western New England has a distinctive vowel shift that this group of linguists called the “Northern Cities Vowel Shift”. One of the features included in this vowel shift is /æ/ raising (or short-a raising). This gives distinct pronunciation differences from other areas, and can almost create a diphthong in certain words. An example would be pronouncing the word trap [træp] more like tray-up [treɪʌp]. Canada also has its own form of a vowel shift, and some features include the lowering and backing of front vowels. Some examples would be pronouncing think [θɪŋk] like thenk [θɛŋk] and slept [slɛpt] like slapped [slæpt]. New England English sometimes features non-rhoticity (or not pronouncing r’s at the end of words). This feature is also found frequently in New York City English, along with the same /æ/ raising the North has. The Mid-Atlantic dialect, especially in Philadelphia and Baltimore, features rhoticity (pronununciation of the r at the end of words) and fronting of back vowels especially when pronouncing words with -aw [ɔː], ow [aʊ] and oo [uː] sounds at the end. In Southern dialects, the diphthong /ai/ often turns into the monophthong /a/. So, the word ride [raɪd] might be pronounced like rad [rad] or rod [rɒd]. There’s also a phenomenon called Southern vowel breaking where the opposite happens: a monophthong becomes a diphthong. For example, yap [jæp] might be pronounced like yeah-up [jeə ʌp].

Of course, the above list is not expansive, and does not represent every speaker living in a certain area; there are always exceptions, especially when people move around and speak multiple languages.


Is a fizzy, bubbly drink called “pop" or "soda"? Well, as it turns out, both (and other words) are used in different parts of the United States and beyond. Many words and expressions we use daily in English vary depending on the region. These differences in dialect make for interesting variations in English and even confusion- a certain word used may not be recognized by speakers outside the region that uses it. Below are some words that vary throughout the United States, along with pictures of the entity for clarity.

Philadelphia: Hoagie

NYC: Hero

Maine: Italian

New England: Grinder

Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire: Tonic (This name is gradually declining)

North Dakota, Minnesota: Pop

West Coast, New England, Mid Atlantic: Soda

Mountain West: Soda pop

South: Coke

You, plural, used to address a group

New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Buffalo, Cincinnati, Chicago: Yous/ Youse (More common among older generations)

Pittsburgh: Yinz

South: Y’all

West: You guys

Northeast, South, Lower Midwest: Water fountain

Michigan: Bubbler

West, Parts of Upper Midwest: Drinking fountain

Northeast, South Florida: Sneakers

Rest of the United States: Tennis shoes

Lexical Variation in the Rest of the World

There are many countries that speak English as a majority language other than the US, Canada, UK, Australia, and New Zealand.

Antigua and Barbuda

The Bahamas








St Kitts and Nevis

St Lucia

St Vincent and the Grenadines

Trinidad and Tobago

Of course, other countries have speakers of English as well, but the countries listed below are where the percentage of English speakers is more than 50%.

These places also have their own unique lexical and phonetic characteristics in their variety of English. Sneakers or tennis shoes are called a variety of different names all around the world. Below are some examples.

United States

sneakers/ tennis shoes




trainers/ running shoes

South Africa

gym/ sport shoes


rubber shoes


track shoes


canvas shoes

Head to LanguageARC to participate in "Pop" or "Soda"? and other citizen science language projects. Find LanguageARC on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube, or heard directly to the LanguageARC website to contribute. Look forward to more blog updates in the future.



Labov, William, Sharon Ash, and Charles Boberg. The Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound Change. Walter de Gruyter, 2008.

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